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“Regardless of age, the core strategy for self-control is to cool the ‘now’ and heat the ‘later’ – push the temptation in front of you far away in space and time, and bring the distant consequences closer in your mind”

The Marshmallow Test – Walter Mischel

Sometimes common lessons can take years to understand. I can’t even begin to remember the first time I heard the words ‘fake it until you make it’ linked with success. But I never liked hearing the concept. It seems to go against the grain of being who you are, and being true to yourself. How can I pretend to be someone I’m not? Surely, I need to be honest about where I am, and then I can move on from there? And who likes anyone being fake anyway? You hear it all the time – “she’s so fake, it drives me mad”. No, there did not seem to be anything positive with the ‘fake it ’til you make it’ approach to life.

Then last year I read a book, and I finally got it. A specific book of course, and in this case it was called ‘The Marshmallow Test’ by Walter Mischel. It was the book’s tagline that me drew me to it – ‘Understanding self-control and how to master it’. I mean, who doesn’t struggle with self-control? If we could all be superbly disciplined and master self-control, what could we not achieve? So the hook was there and I happily went for it.

Kids saying no to sweets

You may have heard of Walter Mischel and the marshmallow test before. It has become the given name for a series of experiments led by Mischel that began in the 1960’s to test the effects of delayed gratification in children. The tests were varied and set up in many different scenarios, but the essence of the experiment was to offer a child a marshmallow (or biscuit, chocolate bar etc.) that was placed in front of them, which they could eat at any time, or to wait a certain period of time, 20 minutes for example, where if they held out from eating the marshmallow in front of them, they would receive another one. Thereby having a larger reward at the end of the time period, if they could control and discipline themselves not to eat the immediate reward in front of them. The results were interesting and varied (and far too diverse to cover in this blog post), but after years of study, the conclusion was clear – delaying gratification is key to a successful and fulfilling life. The children who were able to resist the immediate rewards placed in front of them, scored higher marks in tests, earned higher salaries, and had a greater sense of self-worth in life.

Temptations

A big part of understanding how we can employ self-control, is learning what a hot and cool temptation is. A hot temptation is something that is almost impossible to resist. A smoker needing another cigarette. A free ice cream from the ice cream truck. And so on. Even the most disciplined children in Mischel’s tests were given certain factors that made it inevitable they would eat the sweet in front of them. A cool temptation is of course the exact opposite. It’s there, but can be resisted. It’s tempting to eat a much healthier diet to improve your health in later years, but without being able to see those years right in front of us, the temptation to eat better can be resisted. And that is why self-discipline is difficult; it’s very hard to say no to the hot temptations right in front of us, and harder to say yes to the alternatives that won’t pay off until much later on, even if we are sure they will. For a child taking part in Mischel’s experiments, to resist the marshmallow and gain a further marshmallow, would mean ‘cooling’ the temptation placed in front of them and ‘heating up’ the temptation (reward) in the distance.

Faking it

Your mind finds it incredibly difficult not to act on the hot temptation. Therefore, the key is to control what you class as the hot temptation. And here is how the ‘fake it ’til you make it’ approach fits in. If you act like the success you want to be, you will find it very difficult not to become that. Your brain is wired to act on the hot temptation. If you act like the hottest Saxophone player in town, you will create the necessary conditions to become that. If you behave like the greatest salesperson the company has, the reality will soon catch up. This isn’t delusion, this is visualisation. Becoming that that you envision. This is the winner’s approach.

So it doesn’t have to sound like you’re conning yourself – ‘Fake it ’til you make it’. A more sensible way of putting would be ‘Act now what you aspire to be’, but then that doesn’t have the catchy rhyme. I now know why it works though. Become the vision or dream you have, and the mind will play it’s part to make sure it happens. A golden future hey, how could you resist that?

Recommended reading list:

The Marshmallow Test by Walter Mischel

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Physical and Mental Exercise – Are you getting both?

“We may venture to assert that anyone who can produce the perfect blend of the physical and intellectual sides of education and apply them to the training of character, is producing music and harmony of far more importance than any mere musician tuning strings”

The Republic – Plato

Society is addicted to beauty of the physical nature. People flock to gym’s to hand over a portion of their monthly salary, and fitness magazines sell in their millions. If that isn’t enough, you can find some of your friends showing off their newly toned figures on Facebook, and reminding you how far they have ran recently, via the latest fitness mapping app. Yes we love attractive people. We would love ourselves better if we could be physically fit and attractive too. But what is lost on people these days is mental exercise. And I don’t mean mental exercise as in completing the latest Sunday Times crossword or Sudoku puzzle, I mean reading books. Great books. In fact, it shouldn’t really be mental exercise at all, it should be a search for wisdom and understanding. But the brain needs it’s exercise, requiring the same stretching and toning as the body’s muscles. But who is doing it?

Science shows that the brain grows and develops with hard study and learning. Sadly, most people end this process after leaving formal education. Serious learning is replaced with weekly TV magazines, or the latest hyped novel. Yes novels can be great books, but in terms of expanding our mental understanding, it very often requires us to go back to classic literature to take us out of our reading comfort zone, and increase our reading skill.

I have recently been reading The Republic by Plato, one of the best known works of ancient Greek philosophy. The essence of The Republic is the debate surrounding justice and injustice, and what a perfect society would look like. Learning great stories and literature was certainly not lost on the early Greeks, and a huge part of the early debate identifies the earlier greek poets that Children need to learn, if they are to be raised with great character and mind. Physical education is addressed much later in the early part, but as Socrates the main speaker states, the aim of both physical and mental education is not to creates ends to themselves, but to contribute to a single goal; to train the mind.

Why it is so important to get both

Everything in life needs balance. There is another great quote in The Republic that states “Excessive emphasis on athletics produces an excessively uncivilised type, while a purely literary training leaves men indecently soft“. ‘Uncivilised type’ is perhaps going a bit too far, but the point is clear; there is no path to greatness without addressing both forms of exercise. An uneducated professional footballer may be a cruel stereotype, but after his playing days are over, unless he is in the perhaps 1% whose fame and fortune will see him through to the end of his life, he must balance his physical training with a mental education to remain employable. Otherwise, he will make a sharp fall in the income and social ladder, not an uncommon scenario.

As the previous quote alludes to though, a literary education without a physical element will not address the body’s needs for growth and replenishment. It greatly contributes to the mind with the discipline it requires, and the confidence it gains. It is clear that we need both physical and mental exercise.

So how much do we need?

It is of course much easier to write what we should be doing, than put it into practice. I struggle like anyone to get the required physical and mental exercise I need. The effects of exercise carry various reactions to different people, but I am sure that 3 productive workouts a week (45 minutes plus) will lead to improved fitness and body toning. This has always been the case with me. Workouts have to push you though, there has to be struggle, or else there will be no growth or improvement. There is a good body of scientific evidence now to suggest that we may even need only 3 minutes a week, but this involves breaking a particular exercise down into 20 second periods of activity and rest, where the activity involves the absolute hardest the person can push themselves. Having observed this type of training, people are still left exhausted and breathless, even after these surprisingly short time periods.

When it comes to reading, there is no surefire way of knowing how much we need. It again is often about quality rather than quantity. The late business philosopher Jim Rohn said we should stretch our reading to an hour a day. He went on to say you should at least do 30 minutes a day because “half rich isn’t bad“. It is clear where he thinks the full hour will take you. One hour is what I try to aim for. This should not be seen as a chore though. Reading is probably my favourite past time. There are treasures of wisdom and spiritual connection within great books. They can help you define your own character and personal philosophy. They can help you find yourself.

So the struggle for success and greatness clearly involves exercising the mind and body. Stephen Covey in his great book ‘The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People’ takes this much further, demonstrating that the four dimensions of renewal (growth) that need to be addressed are: Physical, Mental, Spiritual (values and religion) and Social/Emotional (community, friends, service etc). Keeping these all in balance will help you on a journey to success and happiness. Unfortunately, many people, if they are addressing any of these dimensions at all, are focusing entirely on the physical side. It’s not just the gym or the Zumba classes, but the sheer number of diets people put themselves on as well. If individuals would put their minds through the same workout on a daily basis, then they might find incredible riches and understanding, that they could not have possibly imagined previously.

Recommended reading list:

The Republic by Plato, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey, How to Read a Book by Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren

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The Beatles Story

The Beatles Story by Pete HalewoodToday’s blog post is my equivalent of doing a US TV programme clip show. I’m out of new ideas, so I’m digging up something from the archives!

Amongst all the things Liverpool is famous for; the maritime history, the football etc, the story of the most successful band ever to live is of course way up there. Despite my family’s origins being in Liverpool, I didn’t really start to listen to The Beatles as a fan until about 8 years ago. Of course, I have always loved their songs, but as an avid collector of their music, particularly their albums, that took a bit longer to develop. Have you all seen Across The Universe by the way? That has to be one of the most underrated films ever and an absolute must for Beatles fans.

This picture is taken quite obviously outside The Beatles museum in Liverpool, by the Albert Dock. This is an HDR from 3 different exposures and is 1 of 2 pictures I processed of this scene, but this version was by far the better one.

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How to Create Artistic Photos with your iPhone

iphoneFairgroundMobile phones and devices have been able to create great photographic images for a good few years now, but I wish people knew how easy it is to turn regular iPhone photos into something more artistic and interesting.

So I’m going to give you the simple ingredients that take you from having a regular picture of the local fun fair, to an image such as the one above.

My iPhone photo app of choice is SnapSeed. I’ve tried others, but this is always king for me. You can download it for free at the app store (or whatever platform you have).

There is a short learning curve on how to use SnapSeed, but you should have it worked out in a few minutes. It normally involves selecting a certain filter, swiping up and down to select a particular function (brightness for instance), and then swiping left and right to increase or decrease the strength of that function.

To create an artistic effect like the one above, you only need to use 3 filters: Frame, Grunge and Tune Image:

Tune Image – This is your general tonal adjustments, such as contrast, brightness and saturation etc. Use these functions until you have the look you like.

Grunge – There are a great many looks you can achieve with this filter, so I encourage you to keep swiping across until you find the look you want. This brings the art into your photo. You can also increase or decrease the strength of the texture.

Frame – Self-explanatory. There are also a good number of frame options but for something more interesting, use a frame that isn’t standard or boring.

You can use the filters in any order, but however you choose to do it, I would normally finish with the ‘Tune Image’ filter at the end, so I can tweak any tonal adjustments if necessary. Of course, you can use a couple of other filters such as Sharpening or Straighten, if you require them, but the 3 filters I have mentioned specifically in this post will be enough to create more interesting photos with your iPhone.

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The Valleys

BlaenavonWell I wasn’t sure if I was going to post another picture from recent Wales trip but here it is. This is from the World Heritage Site of Blaenavon in south east Wales. There was both an ironworks and coal mining industry in Blaenavon, but with the closure of the coal mine in 1980, both industries were gone.

I did not have time to visit the big pit, where the coal mining took place. My visit was confined to the heritage town, where the people lived and socialised, and still do, but with a much reduced population. The town runs down a fairly steep hill, and beyond that on the other side, you can see the beautiful green hills.

This is an HDR image, but I did not intend it to be. It is a bracketed image from 4 exposures, but when I was first processing this, I was only using the single metered exposure. I realised though that I had to make an HDR image, as the clouds in the single image were becoming too blown out, when adjusting the contrast. I still tried to keep the realism of the scene and have tried not to let the clouds look too ‘HDR’. It’s not a great time to take HDR images during the daytime, it works much nicer in softer light, but when you only have a certain amount of time in a particular area, it’s always worth to keep bracketing your exposures, to make sure you cover the light range if necessary.

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